||PROFILE — Kenneth Kotovsky
Job Title: Professor
Psychology office: 356D Baker Hall
Psychology phone: 412-268-8110
The experience of committing our mental resources to solving a problem can be
extremely engaging. The study of how people solve problems is the problem that
engages me and is the major focus of my research.
One of the questions that we try to answer is what determines problem difficulty.
One method we use is to collect verbal protocols and time subjects' moves as
they solve problems, obtaining detailed information about their solution processes
and problem representations. Another approach has subjects solve problems while
performing a concurrent working memory loading task. One of our findings in this
area is that people's limited working memory capacity controls their ability to think
about problems and plan moves. We often test our conclusions be constructing
computer models of the cognitive processes that we believe subjects use, and
comparing the performance of the models with that of our human subjects solving
the same problems.
Another of our goals is to understand how people overcome difficulty by mobilizing
resources and developing competence on a problem. We have observed that people
are often very tentative and uncertain when initially working on a problem, but then
exhibit almost "expert" level performance toward the end. We have been investigating
this sudden transition to see what knowledge or skill has been acquired that much
of what subjects learn during problem solving is learned without their being able to
indicate any awareness of the learning. We are currently trying to investigate how
this occurs and what its limitations are.
A practical question that emerges from the above research is what features of
problems determine the skill transfer between problems. Another area of application
is the study of how design problems can be solved. Along with collaborators in
engineering, I have begun to examine how problem-solving processes can be
emulated by a computer. These represent some of the research issues that have
begun to emerge from our attempts to understand human problem-solving.
Campbell, M., J. Cagan, and K. Kotovsky, Agent-Based Synthesis of
Electro-Mechanical Design Configurations, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design,
122:1, pp 61-69, 2000.
Cagan, J., Kotovsky, K., Simon, H. A., Scientific Discovery and Inventive
Engineering Design: Cognitive and Computational Similarities. Formal Engineering
Design Synthesis, Antonsin, E. and Cagan, J. eds. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, pp442-465, 2001.
Klahr, D. & Kotovsky, K., A life of the mind: Remembering Herb Simon. APS
Observer 14, no. 4: 2001.
Cronin, M. A., Argote, L., & Kotovsky, K. Specialization and Coordination of
Cognition in Group Problem Solving (under review, Journal of Applied Psychology)
Kotovsky, K. " Problem-solving, Large/Small, Hard/Easy, Conscious/Non-
conscious Problem-space/Problem-solver,: The Issue of Dichotomization.
In J. Davidson & R. Sternberg (Eds.), The Psychology of Problem Solving,
Cambridge University Press. 2003.
Campbell, M., Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K. The A-Design Approach to Managing
Automated Design Synthesis, Research in Engineering Design, Vol. 14, 1. pp,
Moss, J., Cagan, J., & Kotovsky, K. Learning from Design Experience in an
Agent-Based Design System. Research in Engineering Design, 2004.
Moss, J., Kotovsky, K. & Cagan, The Role of Functionality in the Mental
Representations of Engineering Students: Some Differnces in the Early Stages
of Expertise. Cognitive Science, 30, 65-93
Moss, J., Kotovsky, K., & Cagan, J. The Influence of Open Goals in Acquiring
Problem Relevant Information (under review).
Olson, J., Cagan, J. & Kotovsky, K., Simulating Collaborative Dynamics in the
Design of Complex Engineering Systems. under review, Management Science.
Moss, J., K. Kotovsky, and J. Cagan, "When is a Hint Most helpful? The Relationship
Between Impasses, Fixation and Implicit Hints", Journal of Experimental Psychology:
Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2010.
Moss, J., K. Kotovsky, and J. Cagan, "The Effect of Incidental Hints When Problems
Are Suspended Before During Or After An Impasse," Journal of Experimental
Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2010.
Paynter, C. A., Kotovsky, K. & Reder, L. M. "Problem-Solving Without Awareness:
An ERP Investigation. Neuropsychologia. 2011
Fu, K., Cagan, J., Kotovsky, K. "Design Team Convergence: The Influence of example solution
Quality" ASME Journal of Mechanical Design Nov. 2010, Vol. 132.
Associates of Dr. Kotovsky:
Ut Na Sio, Postdoctoral Fellow in Psychology
Current Graduate Students:
Matthew Wood, Graduate Student in Psychology
Christopher McComb, Graduate Student in Mechanical Engineering
Curriculum Vitae (pdf file)
85-102 Introduction to Psychology Class
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