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Psychology Department Course Offerings
Below you can find course description of undergraduate courses offered by the Psychology department. You can also view the Psychology course offerings section of the CMU Undergraduate Catalog. For information on the courses offered this semester, please see CMU's interactive schedule of classes online: http://www.cmu.edu/hub/online_services.html

85-102
Introduction to Psychology Fall and Summer: 9 units
This course examines major areas of scientific psychology in some depth, the attempt being to develop basic models of our behavior and thought that explain wide areas of our functioning. The primary focus is on the areas of neural and motivational control of behavior, memory and thought, social interaction, and psychological development. Specific topics within these areas include brain function, motivational control systems, learning, cognitive and perceptual information processing, problem solving, obedience and conformity, social interaction, emotion, attitude consistency and change, how our social, cognitive and language functions develop, the importance of childhood to adult functioning, and psychopathology. In addition to the lecture, the course includes a weekly recitation section meeting and weekly short WEB-based laboratory experiences in which students get to perform actual experiments, interpret real data, and experience many psychological phenomena.

85-211
Cognitive Psychology Fall and Spring: 9 units
How do people perceive, learn, remember, and think? This course will consider perception, language, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and decision making. Experimental findings and formal models will be discussed in each part of the course.

85-213
Human Information Processing and Artificial Intelligence Fall: 9 units
This class will review various results in cognitive psychology (attention, perception, memory, problem solving, language) and use of artificial intelligence techniques to simulate cognitive processes. Prerequisites: 15-211

85-219
Biological Foundations of Behavior Fall: 9 units
This course will provide students with a general introduction to the underlying biological principles and mechanisms which give rise to complex human cognitive, perceptual and emotional behavior. Topics to be covered include: the anatomical structure of nerve cells and how they communicate, properties of preparation for International Baccalaureate brain organization and function, processing in sensory and motor systems, biological characteristics of human cognition, and neural and hormonal influences on health and emotion. This course will focus on how emerging methods and approaches are beginning to make it possible for psychologists, computer scientists, and biologists to gain an integrated understanding of complex behavior.

85-221
Principles of Child Development Fall and Spring: 9 units
This course is about normal development from conception through adolescence. Topics include physical, perceptual, cognitive, emotional and social development. Students will learn facts about children at various points in development, theories about how development works, and research methods for studying development in infants and children. Students will be encouraged to relate the facts, theories and methods of developmental psychology to everyday problems, social issues and real world concerns.

85-241
Social Psychology Fall and Spring: 9 units
The focus of this course will be on how peoples behavior, feelings and thoughts are influenced or determined by their social environment. The course will begin with lectures and readings on how social psychologists go about studying social behavior. Next, various topics on which social psychologists have done research will be covered. These topics will include: person perception, prejudice and discrimination, the nature of attitudes and how attitudes are formed and changed, interpersonal attraction, conformity, compliance, altruism, aggression, group behavior, and applications of psychology to problems in health care, law, politics, and the environment. Through readings and lectures on these topics, students will also be exposed to social psychological theories.

85-251
Personality Intermittent: 9 units
The primary purpose of personality psychology is to understand human uniqueness÷ how and why it is that one pers on differs from others, in terms of the ways he or she thinks, feels, and acts. Students in the course will be exposed to several broad theoretical perspectives, each of which attempts to capture and understand the origins and consequences of individual distinctiveness from a slightly different vantage point. Included among these approaches are the dispositional, psychoanalytic, learning, phenomenological, and cognitive self regulation perspectives. This is a survey course and is intended to provide students with a broad background of theory and research in the area. Class meetings consist primarily of lecture, but there is some discussion too. In addition, classroom exercises will allow students to test their own personalities.

85-261
Abnormal Psychology Fall and Spring: 9 units
The study of psychopathology is not an exact science; nor are there many clear-cut parameters with which to differentiate "normal" and "abnormal" behavior. This course will focus on learning about and understanding the range of behaviors which fall within the province of "abnormal" psychology. Its approach will be descriptive, empirical, theoretical and conceptual. Students will examine definitions of ?abnormality? in an historical and contemporary context, explore issues relevant to diagnosis and patient care, be introduced to various psychological diagnostic categories, and develop an appreciation of the range of treatments for these disorders.

85-281
Introduction to Clinical Psychology All Semesters: 9 units
This course is designed to introduce students to a wide variety of concepts in the area of clinical psychology. We will explore clinical psychology in an historical perceptive, ethics related to the practice of psychology, and various theories of psychotherapy (Including psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, existential, and cognitive behavioral). Also, we will look at group theories underlying group therapy and family/systems therapy. Prerequisites: 85251 or 85261

85-310
Research Methods in Cognitive Psychology Fall and Spring: 9 units
This is a course in which students develop the research skills associated with cognitive psychology and cognitive science. Students learn how to design and conduct experiments, and analyze and interpret the data they collect. The course covers a variety of experimental designs, e.g., factorial, Latin Squares. Analyses of response times, qualitative data, and signal detection are also covered. Cognitive modeling will also be discussed. Topics include mental imagery, memory, and perception. The class format consists of lectures, discussions and student presentations. You must have either taken 36-309 previously, or 36-309 can be taken as a Co-requisite. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213

85-320
Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Fall and Spring: 9 units
This is a laboratory course, in which the student will have direct experience working with children, as well as writing research reports and designing and critiquing research in child development. The purpose of the course is to develop research expertise that will assist the student both in carrying out research and in evaluating the research of others. Special emphasis will be given to the unique methodological problems associated with the study of development. You must have either taken 36-309 previously, or 36-309 can be taken as a Co-requisite. Prerequisite: 85-221

85-340
Research Methods in Social Psychology Fall and Spring: 9 units
This course is designed to provide students with the necessary knowledge to evaluate research, make transitions between theory and the operations that test the theory, and to design and carry out original research. Topics will include the nature of proof and causal inference, manipulation of independent variables, measurement of dependent variables, questionnaire design, experimental ,and quasi-experimental, design and ethical issues involved in doing research. Survey, observational and experimental techniques as applied in both field and laboratory settings will be covered. Students will be expected to criticize completed research. They are also expected to design measures and complete their own original studies. During the course of the semester students will also be expected to design and carry out an original research project as well. You must have either taken 36-309 previously, or 36-309 can be taken as a Co-requisite. Prerequisites: 85-241 or 85-251

85-350
Psychology of Prejudice Fall: 9 units
This course is devoted to the study of both traditional and more modern forms of prejudice and discrimination and the psychological processes that can arise from categorizations and stereotyping. The class provides an overview of the cognitive and emotional underpinnings of prejudice and discrimination as it pertains to many forms of inequality. The psychological theories underlying these behaviors will be examined as well as their impact on the lives of stigmatized individuals. Its goal is to examine a number of social differences and understand how prejudice can impact many areas of society. In addition to the traditional forms of prejudice based on such things as race, gender and age; other inequalities that result from less traditional groupings such as social class, appearance, and disability and will be explored. Research on issues of social identity, intergroup relations and the reduction of prejudice will be examined through readings and class activities. Prerequisites: 85241

85-352
Evolutionary Psychology Intermittent: 9 units
This course will cover both the fundamentals of evolutionary psychology, including the theories of natural and sexual selection, with the overarching aim of providing an overview of the field at an advanced level. We will examine the relevance of evolutionary thinking to a range of psychological phenomena including problems of survival, long-term mating strategies, short-term sexual strategies, parenting, kinship, cooperative alliances, aggression and warfare, conflict between the sexes, and prestige, status, and social dominance. We will also examine evolutionary approaches to sensation and perception, development, consciousness, cognition, language, and abnormal behavior. *Juniors and Seniors only, or permission of instructor.

85-354
Infant Language Development Intermittent: 9 units
Languages may be the most complex systems people ever master, and yet infants appear to learn them effortlessly. By contrast, adults often struggle to acquire language. This class will explore theoretical controversies and experimental results in an attempt to understand how infants acquire language, and the way that acquisition might differ between infancy and adulthood. Throughout the course, there will be a focus on the potential role of learning in language acquisition, the strengths and limitations of the experimental methods that are appropriate for use with infants, and the relation between theoretical constructs and experimental results. The course will be reading intensive, and evaluation will be based upon both written assignments and oral participation. Prerequisites: 85221

85-355
Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience Intermittent: 9 units
Cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field in which psychological, physiological, and computational methodologies are brought to bear in understanding the neural basis of cognitive processes. In this course, we will consider the application of methodologies such as physiological recordings from neurons in awake, behaving animals, functional neuroimaging (PET and fMRI) of normal subjects performing cognitive tasks, behavioral studies of brain-injured patients with selective cognitive deficits, and computational modeling of normal and impaired processing, in understanding cognitive domains such as high-level vision and attention, learning and memory, reading and language, meaning and semantics, and the organization and control of action. In each instance, the emphasis will be on how the application of converging methodologies, particularly those related to brain organization and function, leads to important insights into the nature of cognitive processes that would be difficult to obtain through any one conventional methodology alone. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-219

85-356
Music and Mind: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Sound Intermittent: 9 units
This course will take a multidisciplinary approach to understand the neural systems that contribute to auditory perception and cognition, using music and speech as domains of inquiry. Students will master topics in acoustics, psychophysics, cognitive psychology, cognitive development, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. The early part of the course will provide students with a common foundation in acoustics, signal processing, and auditory neuroscience. Later in the semester, the focus will turn to developing analytical skills through critical evaluation of primary-source experimental literature. Hands-on laboratories and homework sets in sound manipulation and experimentation also will constitute a means of learning about auditory cognitive neuroscience. Throughout, the focus will be upon understanding general cognitive and perceptual challenges in perceiving and producing complex sounds like speech and music. Topics may include biological vs. cultural influences, development in infancy, perception versus production, time perception, effects of experience on perceptual processing, comparative studies of animals, attention, development of expertise, effects of brain damage, and emotional expression. Topics will be addressed from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience, in that we will attempt to understand the neural processes that give rise to auditory perception and cognition. Prerequisites: (85211 or 85219 or 85370) AND
(85310 or 85320 or 85340)

85-358
Pro-Social Behavior Spring: 9 units
This course is an advanced seminar that focuses on social psychological research involving the examination of pro-social behavior. A heavy emphasis will be placed on classic research on helping (which investigates how, when, and why we help strangers), as well as the wide body of literature on social support (which investigates how we help, and seek help from, those who are closer to us). Research on both help-seeking and help-provision will be covered, as well as the implications of this type of pro-social behavior for relationships and health. The course also will cover research on other types of pro-social behavior such as empathy, altruism, forgiveness, and cooperation. This is an advanced seminar in which you will be expected to read original research articles and chapters on assigned topics and come to class prepared to discuss the material. Readings will consist of theoretical and empirical articles from psychology journals and related sources. Additional course requirements will involve short, weekly writing assignments, student presentations of research articles, and a written research proposal. Over the course of the semester, students will design and carry out a small-scale, original investigation on a topic of interest. Prerequisites: (85-241 or 85-251) AND (85-310 or 85-320 or 85-340)

85-362
Applied Developmental Psychology Intermittent: 9 units
"Developmentally appropriate" has become a popular label used to describe activities, materials, and environments designed for children. But what does it mean to be developmentally appropriate, and how is it determined? Are these activities and materials valuated for their impact on children¹s development or are they simply designed with a superficial interpretation of theoretical positions or empirical findings? How do we decide what theory to apply when designing or evaluating materials, activities, or contexts for children, and are different theories more informative and applicable than others? The purpose of this class is to think deeply about how our theories and research findings have been and could be applied to support and enhance the development of children in a variety of contexts, such as at home, daycare, school, playgrounds, etc. and to evaluate different activities, materials and/or contexts in reference to various theories and empirical findings. The overall purpose of the course is to understand how theory can inform practice and vice versa. Prerequisites: 85-221

85-363
Attention, Its Development and Disorders Intermittent: 9 units
This seminar is on attention, its development, and\r\ndisorders. The seminar will discuss a broad range of topics including:\r\ntheoretical and practical implications of studying attention (for example,\r\nis it really dangerous to talk on the cell phone while driving? does\r \nlistening to music help studying?); interrelationship of attention with\r\nother cognitive processes, such as perception and memory; challenges and\r\nopportunities for studying attention in infants and young children;\r\nbiological and psychological foundations of attention disorders. \r\nClasses will consist of a combination of lecture and discussion. Students\r\nwill be expected to read original research articles, participate in class\r\ndiscussions, make presentations based on readings, and complete a written\r\nassignment. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-221

85-370
Perception Fall: 9 units
Perception, broadly defined, is the construction of a representation of the external world. Although we often think of perception as the processing of input to the sense organs, the world conveyed by the senses is ambiguous, and cognitive and sensory systems interact to interpret it. This course examines the mechanisms involved in visual perception, along with consideration of other perceptual systems such as auditory perception, haptic perception (touch) and pain. The course addresses how sensory coding interacts with top-down processes such as selective attention, the use of context, and application of prior knowledge. Additional topics may include perceptual learning and development, object recognition, reading, speech perception, brain imaging studies, and perceptual impairments. Prerequisites: 85-102 or 85-211

85-375
Cross Cultural Psychology Spring: 9 units
Human beings share a common genetic inheritance, but our cultural institutions differ in a bewildering variety of ways. This course explores the many different cultural expressions of basic human cognitive and social abilities and needs, We will look at cultural variations in child rearing, mother-child attachment, language socialization, categorization, reasoning, problem-solving, architecture, music, politics, warfare, food-gathering, sex roles, mental disorders, and altered states of consciousness, all with the goal of understanding how the shape of social systems and symbolic expression reflects the economic and adaptive needs of the culture and its people. Among the approaches to these phenomena we will consider are symbolic interaction, cognitive anthropology, dialectic materialism, and modern ethnology. Prerequisites: At least 1 100 or 200 level psychology course

85-377
Attitudes and Persuasion Spring: 9 units
This advanced undergraduate course will focus on the topic of attitude change and how various persuasive techniques are used to shape human response. The dynamics of propaganda and what makes the techniques effective on social and consumer decisions will be addressed. The primary goals of the course are to 1) understand the dynamics of attitude change; 2) explore the mechanism by which attitude change techniques operate and 3) examine relevant theories and research in persuasion. Examples of topics covered include the origins of attitudes, how attitudes influence judgments, social power and attitude change, and how individual decisions are influenced by the mass media. Classic and contemporary research in the area of persuasion will be examined in the form of course readings and assignments. Prerequisites: 85-241

85-380
In Search Of Mind: The History Of Psychology Spring: 9 units
This course will focus on three aspects of the origin and growth of experimental psychology. The first is the prehistory of psychology, where the connection of the discipline to the development of modern science, and in particular, its origins in philosophy and physiology, is examined. The second focus of the course is on the different approaches and attempts to define the field that have contested for dominance during much of the life of the discipline. The final major focus of the course is on the modern period (roughly the last forty years) where the influences that brought about the modern counter-revolution in psychology will be examined, and where some conjecture about likely future directions will occur. Prerequisites: 85-310 or 85-320 or 85-340

85-382
Consciousness and Cognition Intermittent: 9 units
This course will examine the relationship between cognition and consciousness. One particular focus will be on the issue of how complex the processes that are largely unconsciously controlled may be and another is on the interaction of conscious and non-conscious processes in the control of cognition. We will also very briefly examine relevant ideas about consciousness that arise in other fields such as philosophy of mind and physics. The major topics to be included will be drawn from: the experience and functionality of consciousness, neuroscience approaches to consciousness, perceptual and attentional work on consciousness, cognition in altered states of consciousness (in particular, dreaming), implicit memory, and the proceduralization of higher level cognitive processes. The course will consist of our reading and discussing primary research literature from the above areas. There will be a number of short written assignments based on the weekly reading and a term paper. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213

85-390
Human Memory Intermittent: 9 units
Without memory, people would barely be able to function: we could not be able to communication because we would not be able to remember meanings or words, nor what anyone said to us; we could have no friends because everyone would be a stranger (no memory of meeting anyone); we could have no sense of self because we could not remember anything about ourselves either; we could not predict anything about the future because we would have no recollections of the past; we would not know how to get around, because we would have no knowledge of the environment. This course will discuss issues related to memory at all levels: the sensory registers, i.e., how we perceive things; working or short-term memory; long-term memory or our knowledge base. We will discuss the differences between procedural/skill knowledge, and declarative/fact knowledge.The topics of memory monitoring, feeling and knowing, spread of activation within memory (priming), implicit memory, and amnesia will also be covered. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213

85-392
Human Expertise Intermittent: 9 units
The process of becoming an expert involves many changes, some quantitative and some qualitative. This course will provide an up-to-date account of the theory and data concerning the development of expertise. Questions addressed include the following. What does it take to become an expert? Are experts born or made? Is the process of acquiring expertise common across different domains from music to sports to science? Research studied in the course will employ a variety of methodologies, from case studies to protocol analysis to computational modeling. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213

85-395
Applications of Cognitive Science Spring: 9 units
The famous psychologist George Miller once said that Psychology should "give itself away." The goal of this course is to look at cases where we have done so -- or at least tried. The course focuses on applications that are sufficiently advanced as to have made an impact outside of the research field per se. That impact can take the form of a product, a change in practice, or a legal statute. The application should have a theoretical base, as contrasted, say, with pure measurement research as in ergonomics. Examples of applications are virtual reality (in vision, hearing, and touch), cognitive tutors based on models of cognitive processing, phonologically based reading programs, latent semantic analysis applications to writing assessment, and measurses of consumers' implicit attitudes. The course will use a case-study approach that considers a set of applications in detail, while building a general understanding of what it means to move research into the applied setting. The questions to be considered include: What makes a body of theoretically based research applicable? What is the pathway from laboratory to practice? What are the barriers - economic, legal, entrenched belief or practice? The format will emphasize analysis and discussion by students. Prerequisites: 85-102 or 85-211 or 85-213 or 85-370

85-406
Autism: Psychological and Neuroscience Perspectives Fall: 9 units
Autism is a disorder that affects many cognitive and social processes, sparing some facets of thought while strongly impacting others. This seminar will examine the scientific research that has illuminated the nature of autism, focusing on its cognitive and biological aspects. For example, language, perception, and theory of mind are affected in autism. The readings will include a few short books and many primary journal articles. The readings will deal primarily with autism in people whose IQ’s are in the normal range (high functioning autism). Seminar members will be expected to regularly enter to class iscussions and make presentations based on the readings. The seminar will examine various domains of thinking and various biological underpinnings of brain function, to converge on the most recent scientific consensus on the biological and psychological characterization of autism. There will be a special focus on brain imaging studies of autism, including both structural (MRI) imaging of brain morphology and functional (fMRI and PET) imaging of brain activation during the performance of various tasks. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213 or 85-219 or 85-355 or 85-429

85-412
Cognitive Modeling Spring: 9 units
This course will be concerned with modeling of cognition. We will use a high-level modeling language to simulate a range of cognitive tasks from the literature on attention, memory, problem solving and skill acquisition. Students will end the course developing a model for a phenomenon of their choosing. The course grade will be determined by a series of assignments involving developing cognitive models and by a written exam. Prerequisites: 15-211

85-414
Cognitive Neuropsychology Spring: 9 units
This course will review what has been learned of the neural bases of cognition through studies of brain-damaged patients as well as newer techniques such as brain stimulation mapping, regional metabolic and blood flow imaging, and attempt to relate these clinical and physiological data to theories of the mind cast in information-processing terms. The course will be organized into units corresponding to the traditionally-defined subfields of cognitive psychology such as perception, memory and language. In each area, we will ask: To what extent do the neurological phenomena make contact with the available cognitive theories? When they do, what are their implications for these theories (i.e., Can we confirm or disconfirm particular cognitive theories using neurological data?)? When they do not, what does this tell us about the parses of the mind imposed by the theories and methodologies of cognitive psychology and neuropsychol-ogy? Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-219

85-417 (05-432, HCI Department)
Cognitive Modeling and Intelligent Tutoring Systems Fall: 9 units
This course will focus on the combination of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence required to develop intelligent computer-assisted instruction. A background in artificial intelligence (minimally LISP) and cognitive psychology is required. Half of the course will be project-oriented. We will learn the production system GRAPES and work up to producing an expert system and a tutor for a fragment of calculus. Prerequisites: 15-211 or 85-213

85-419
Introduction to Parallel Distributed Processing Spring: 9 units
This course will provide an overview of parallel-distributed processing models of aspects of perception, memory, language, knowledge representation, and learning. The course will consist of lectures describing the theory behind the models as well as their implementation, and students will get hands-on experience running existing simulation models on workstations. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213

85-421
Language and Thought Intermittent: 9 units
This course allows the student to explore ways in which the mind shapes language and language shapes the mind. Why are humans the only species with a full linguistic system? Some of the questions to be explored are: What kinds of mental abilities allow the child to learn language? What are the cognitive abilities needed to support the production and comprehension of sentences in real time? How do these abilities differ between people? Are there universal limits on the ways in which languages differ? Where do these limitations come from cognition in general or the specific language facility? Why is it so hard to learn a second language? Are there important links between language change and cultural change that point to links between language and culture? Prerequisites: 80-150 or 80-180 or 80-181 or 82-382 or 85-108 or 85-211 or 85-213

85-422
Infancy Intermittent: 9 units
The purpose of this course is to provide students with an extensive back-ground in the field of infant development and to acquaint them with the special methodological and theoretical problems which characterize research in that field. The course will be discussion-oriented and every student will be required to participate actively in both preparing for and contributing to the discussions. Specific content areas to be covered include attachment, perception, memory, conceptual development, and the origins of language. Prerequisites: 85-221

85-423
Cognitive Development Spring: 9 units
The general goals of this course are that students become familiar with the basic phenomena and the leading theories of cognitive development, and that they learn to critically evaluate research in the area. Piagetian and information processing approaches will be discussed and contrasted. The focus will be upon the development of childrenāson processing capacity and the effect that differences in capacities have upon the teract with the environment in problem solving and learning situations. Prerequisites: 85-221

85-425
Child Psychopathology and Treatment Spring: 9 units
The first half of this course will focus on understanding the etiology and epidemiology of child and adolescent psychopathology. Special emphasis will be placed on conditions that are first diagnosed during childhood (e.g., ADHD, Autism, Eating Disorders) as well as understanding how child and adult psychopathology differ. The second half of this course will focus on treatment interventions for youth with psychopathology. Students will learn about how interventions for adults with psychopathology are altered to be developmentally appropriate for children, and methods of intervention commonly used with children but less so with adults(e.g., family therapy, play therapy). For students who have completed abnormal psychology and the psychology breadth requirement but not the other course pre-requisite, 85102, please see Emilie Rendulic to register for this course in BH 343. Prerequisites: 85102 and 85261

85-426
Learning in Humans and Machines Spring: 9 units
This course provides an introduction to probabilistic models of cognition. The focus is on principles that can help to explain human learning and to develop intelligent machines. Topics discussed will include categorization, causal learning, language acquisition, and inductive reasoning. Basic programming skills will be required for the problem sets. Prerequisites: 15111

85-429
Cognitive Brain Imaging Spring: 9 units
This seminar will examine how the brain executes higher level cognitive processes, such as problem-solving, language comprehension, and visual thinking. The topic will be addressed by examining what recent brain imaging studies can tell us about these various kinds of thinking. This new scientific approach has the potential of providing important information about how the brain thinks, indicating not only what parts perform what function, but also how the activity of different parts of the brain are organized to perform some thinking task, and how various neurological diseases (e.g. aphasia, activity. A variety of different types of thinking will be examined, including short-term working memory storage and computation, problem solving, language comprehension, visual thinking. Several different technologies for measuring brain activity (e.g. PET and functional MRI and also some PET imaging) will be considered, attempting to relate brain physiology to cognitive functioning. The course will examine brain imaging in normal subjects and in people with various kinds of brain damage. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213 or 85-412 or 85-414 or 85-419

85-436
Scientific Research in Education Spring: 9 units
Most of what we know about thinking, learning, memory, concept formation, problem solving, and so on, comes from laboratory experiments by researchers in cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive development. But how can this knowledge be used to improve teaching and learning in real classrooms. That is the question that we will explore in this advanced undergraduate and graduate seminar. We will read and critically review papers dealing with the creation, implementation, and evaluation of new approaches to instruction. We will examine a variety of such interventions, ranging from specific topics to entire curricula. This topic is especially timely, because of the highly influential (and controversial) "No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB), passed in 2002. Perhaps the most widely-known consequence of the law is its emphasis on testing and assessment, which has wide-spread implications for the way that American children will be taught and tested and the way that schools will be evaluated and rewarded. Equally important, but perhaps less widely-known outside academic circles, is NCLB's repeated emphasis on scientifically based education research. This new pressure for evidence-based policy and practice in education has brought a sense of urgency to understanding the ways in which the basic tenets of science can be applied to educational research. This seminar will address the fundamental question: What does it mean to do scientific research in education by reviewing some of the recent educationally-relevant research on how students learn, primarily, but not exclusively, in the areas of math and science. Prerequisites: (85211 or 85423) and (85310 or 85320 or 85340)

85-442
Health Psychology Fall: 9 units
This course is concerned with how behavior and psychological states influence the development of and recovery from disease. The class provides an overview of existing psychological and epidemiological data on the relationship between behavior and disease and addresses the issue of how behavior, emotion and cognition can influence the disease processes. Topics include: measures and concepts, stress and disease, stress and coping, personal control, helplessness and disease, social support and health, reactivity to stress, behavior and hypertension, coronary heart disease, infectious diseases and immune function, and the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in health.

85-443
Social Factors and Well-Being Spring: 9 units
This course will focus on the role that our social environment plays in our feelings of well-being and in the maintenance of our mental and physical health. Topics to be discussed include marriage, widowhood, loneliness, social support, social participation, social aspects of personality (e.g., social anxiety, extraversion, agreeableness, and hostility), social stressors (betrayal and conflict), discrimination, and socioeconomic status. We will consider how each social factor develops, the extent to which we can alter it or its effects on our lives, and how it influences our overall well-being. Instructor permission is required.

85-444
Interpersonal Relationships Fall: 9 units
The focus on this class will be on theories and studies of attraction and of relationship functioning. Definitions of attraction and of relationships, classical reinforcement theories of attraction, attribution and cognitive consistency theories of attraction, misattribution theories, self-evaluation maintenance theory, attachment theory and several other theoretical approaches to understanding attraction and relationships will be covered. Classes will consist of a combination of lectures, discussion and debate. You will be expected to:
a) read original research articles and chapters,
b) regularly turn in comments about those readings,
c) participate regularly and actively in class discussions, and
d) write four papers (to be handed in at the end of approximately every 3-4 weeks). Prerequisites: (85-241 and 85-340) or (85-251 and 85-340)

85-446
Psychology of Gender Spring: 9 units
This course is devoted to the investigation of psychological gender rather than biological sex. That is, sex differences will be explored from a social psychological (e.g., socialization) perspective. Implications of both male gender role and female gender role in the areas of relationships and health will be the course focus. Prerequisites: 85-241 or 85-251

85-449
Emotion and Social Behavior Intermittent: 9 units
This is an advanced seminar on emotion and social behavior. The course is new and the exact contents are still being developed. Examples of questions likely to be addressed are: What is an emotion? How might one differentiate such things as emotions, moods, and temperaments? What are the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral determinants of emotions? What are the physiological, cognitive and behavioral consequences of emotions? How do differ (e.g. menās versus stable relationships versus those in unstable relationships)? How does relationship context influence emotion and how does emotion influence relationships? Prerequisites: (85-241 or 85-251) and 85-340

85-451
Psychology of Purpose Intermittent: 9 units
This course explores a number of issues and questions involving human motivation. The course begins by considering how people identify goals to work toward, and how people keep themselves on track as they work to achieve the goals they have set. An even larger part of the course is devoted to examining the causes and consequences of motivational failure, a consideration of what happens to people when they are having difficulty attaining the goals they value. Discussion surrounding motivational failure centers largely on how people adjust to being diagnosed and treated for chronic physical disease. This is an advanced seminar, and active participation in class is expected. Prerequisites: (85-241 or 85-251) and (85-310 or 85-320 or 85-340)

85-455
The Discovery of Spoken Language Intermittent: 9 units
This class will explore an extraordinary feat - the acquisition of spoken language. We will focus on the very early perceptual and cognitive skills that infants develop in acquiring speech perception and production. In our explorations of the discovery of spoken language, we will explore language and speech as domains of empirical study, we will examine prenatal and postnatal development of the skills that support the discovery of spoken language, we will survey commonly informati used methods and we will examine the important perceptual and cognitive skills ability to infants develop in acquiring spoken language. Throughout the course, there will be emphasis on critical evaluation of theoretical interpretations. The course will be reading-intensive with evaluation based on written and oral presentation and argument. Senior or Junior class standing or permission of instructor.

85-480
Internship in Clinical Psychology All Semesters: 6-12 units
This course is a cooperative effort by Carnegie Mellon University and a number of community and hospital-affiliated professionals. Through participation in this course, students will be exposed to didactic instruction and hands-on experience relevant to mental health treatment and applied clinical research. Prerequisites: 85-251 or 85-261

85-482
Internship in Psychology Fall and Spring: 3-12 units
The Internship in Psychology is designed to enable students to gain experience in professional settings related to their studies in Psychology and earn credit for the intellectual work involved. It is the students responsibility to locate an internship site and on-site supervisor, as well as to identify a CMU faculty sponsor. The student registers for the internship by submitting a completed internship form to Emilie Rendulic in Baker Hall 343. emilier@andrew.cmu.edu

85-484
Practicum in Child Development Fall and Spring: 9 units
This guided field experience is designed to help students deepen their understanding of developmental psychology by assisting in a preschool or kindergarten classroom and discussing the ways that their experiences relate to the theories they have learned previously and to new readings. Each student will individually schedule a consistent 6 hours per week helping in a School classroom (preferably 2 or 3 chunks of time). Classroom duties will include working one-on-one and with small groups of students as they do puzzles, art projects, dramatic play, etc., as well as helping with snack, playground supervision, classroom cleanup, and storytime. Each student will be expected to keep a journal 1) relating general experiences to developmental theories and 2) documenting the development of a particular child during the semester. All students will meet for a 1 hour weekly discussion with the director. Discussion topics and related readings will be selected collaboratively, based on issues/questions raised by the group's observations and discussions. Prerequisites: 85-221

85-490
Seminar on Implicit and Explicit Memory Intermittent: 9 units
This seminar will discuss current topics in human memory as well as go over some of the basic conceptualizations of the functionality of memory and information processing. Most weeks, the instructor will review an aspect of human memory or the literature relevant to the will discuss one or two journal articles. Students in the course will be responsible for reading all the articles but responsibility for leading the discussion will rotate. The course will require each student to either conduct an experiment relevant to a topic discussed or do a literature review relevant to one of the topics under discussion. Interested students must have taken a basic course in Cognitive Psychology to enroll. Prerequisites: 85-211 or 85-213

85-501
Special Topics: Stress, Coping and Well-Being Spring: 9 units
This course will examine the relationship of stress and coping to psychological and physical well-being. Discussions will be centered on readings from current theoretical and empirical articles. Anticipated discussions include the definitions of stress and coping from multiple theoretical perspectives, issues relevant to the measurement of stress and coping, the psychological and physical consequences of stress, the time course of assessing well-being, and "adaptive" vs. "maladaptive" coping responses. This class is a small, upper level seminar that will consist of minimal lecture and a majority of class discussion. Active class participation is required. Prerequisites: (85-241 and 85-340) or (85-251 and 85-340)

85-505
Readings In Psychology All Semesters: 3-12 units
As the name implies, the emphasis in the Reading course is on reading articles and books in some specified area. The students work in the course must lead to the production of a written paper which will be read by the instructor directing the readings. Often the reading is related to a research project which the student may wish to conduct. Readings courses have also been used to give students an opportunity to receive instruction in areas which are not included elsewhere in our course listing. The course may be taken for any number of units up to 9, depending upon the amount of work to be done.

85-507
Research in Psychology Fall: 3-18 units
This course may include field study, applied work, or laboratory research. The student should have previous training in the basic research skills that will be used in his/her project, especially statistical methods and experimental design. Independent Research Projects will be supervised by a faculty member and must result in a written paper. It is the students responsibility to make arrangements for independent study courses with individual faculty members. This should be done the semester before a student wishes to register for one of these courses. The course may be taken for any number of units up to 9, depending upon the amount of work to be done.

85-508
Research in Psychology Spring: 3-18 units
This course may include field study, applied work, or laboratory research. The student should have previous training in the basic research skills that will be used in his/her project, especially statistical methods and experimental design. Independent Research Projects will be supervised by a faculty member and must result in a written paper. It is the students responsibility to make arrangements for independent study courses with individual faculty members. This should be done the semester before a student wishes to register for one of these courses. The course may be taken for any number of units up to 9, depending upon the amount of work to be done.

85-601
Senior Thesis Fall: 9 units
This course is intended for senior Psychology or Cognitive Science majors who wish to conduct a research project under the direction of a faculty advisor. The project topic is to be selected jointly by the student and the advisor. The project will culminate in a senior paper which will be presented to the Department Head at the end of Fall Semester. Prerequisite: Grade of B or better in a previous research course required to enter, grade of B or better in first semester of senior thesis course required to complete, and permission of instructor. A formal proposal is required in the first semester. This course differs from the Honors Thesis sequence (66-501,502) in that it does not require Honors standing in HSS (i.e., there are no QPA requirements). This course differs from Problems in Psychology (85-507, 85-508) in that the studentās original contribution to the research is expected to be more substantial, and in that a final written report of the project is to be presented to the Department.

85-602
Senior Thesis Spring: 9 units
This course is intended for senior Psychology or Cognitive Science majors who wish to conduct a research project under the direction of a faculty advisor. The project topic is to be selected jointly by the student and the advisor. The project will culminate in a senior paper which will be presented to the Department Head at the end of Fall Semester. Prerequisite: Grade of B or better in a previous research course required to enter, grade of B or better in first semester of senior thesis course required to complete, and permission of instructor. A formal proposal is required in the first semester. This course differs from the Honors Thesis sequence (85-611, 85-612) in that it does not require Honors standing in HSS observations and discussions. Prerequi-(i.e., there are no QPA requirements). This course differs from Problems in Psychology (85-507, 85-508) in that the studentās original contribution to the research is expected to be more substantial, and in that a final written report of the project is to be presented to the Department.