85-221A: Principles of Child Development Exam #1

TOTAL: 100 points††††††††† TIME: 1.30-2.45

 

Section I:Multiple Choice

 

Write the letter of the best answer on the blank provided on the left. (3 points each)

 

D†† 1.

Stage theories regard development as:

A)

active.

B)

passive.

C)

continuous.

D)

discontinuous.

 

A†† 2.

Which of the following qualifies as a hypothesis?

A)

Children whose parents argue in their presence are more likely than other children to try illegal drugs.

B)

What parental behaviors are associated with an increased likelihood of teenage illegal drug use?

C)

What are the differences between children whose parents argue in their presence and those whose parents do not argue in their presence?

D)

There are many differences between children whose parents argue in their presence and those whose parents do not argue in their presence.

 

A†† 3.

Cephalocaudal development refers to the tendency for development to take place in which of the following ways?

A)

from head to body

B)

from body to head

C)

from inside to outside

D)

from outside to inside

 

E†† 4.

Which of the following is not thought to be a contributor to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?

A)

smoking near infant

B)

baby sleeping on its tummy

C)

putting baby to sleep on soft mattress or pillow

D)

dressing baby too warmly during sleep

E)

All of the above are contributors too SIDS.

 

C†† 5.

Which of the following is true of sensitive periods in prenatal development?

A)

All major organ systems share the exact same sensitive period.

B)

Teratogens have the most serious effect on prenatal development immediately before a system's sensitive period.

C)

A sensitive period is the time when a system's basic structures are being formed.

D)

The sensitive period of limb development occurs several weeks before the limbs begin to form.

 

C†† 6.

Which of the following is a true statement?

A)

A measure can be valid without being reliable and can be reliable without being valid.

B)

A measure can be valid without being reliable, but it cannot be reliable without being valid.

C)

A measure cannot be valid without being reliable, but it can be reliable without being valid.

D)

A measure cannot be valid without being reliable and cannot be reliable without being valid.

 

D†† 7.

Which of the following is a direct contributor to a child's phenotype?

A)

child's genotype

B)

child's environment

C)

parents' genotype

D)

A and B

E)

all of the above

 

B†† 8.

The finding that identical twins reared together are more similar in intelligence than identical twins reared apart is evidence for the:

A)

importance of genetic factors.

B)

importance of environmental factors.

C)

interplay between genes and environment.

D)

all of the above

 

A†† 9.

According to Piaget's theory, individuals in what stage are able to conduct a systematic scientific experiment?

A)

formal operations

B)

sensorimotor

C)

postoperational

D)

preoperational

E)

concrete operations

 

B†† 10.

Amy and her mother are playing with an interesting squeaky toy. Amy's mother is squeezing the toy in front of Amy. Amy is very excited and reaches for the toy. Amy's mother, however, quickly hides the toy behind her back. At this point, Amy turns away from her mother and begins to look at the ladybug design on her dress. Amy is probably approximately what age?

A)

1 month old

B)

6 months old

C)

10 months old

D)

15 months old

 


Section II:Short-answer questions

 

11.

Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of each of the following designs: (a) cross-sectional and (b) longitudinal. (4 pts.)

 

Cross-Sectional:

 

+1

advantage

can reveal broad similarities and differences between age groups; easy to implement

+1

disadvantage

no information about whether and how a particular child may change over longer time

 

Longitudinal:

 

+1

advantage

can measure stability of individual differences over time; can examine individual patterns of change

+1

disadvantage

time-consuming and difficult to track children over long time; differential attrition

 

12.

Steven is the proud new uncle of newborn baby Rachel. His first gift for her is a colorful rattle. Describe how baby Rachel is likely to respond to or interact with the rattle at each of the following ages: two weeks, three months, six months, 10 months, 15 months, and 21 months. For each age, give an example of Rachel's likely behavior with the rattle as well as a brief description of how Piagetian theory would explain this behavior. (12 pts.)

 

2 Weeks:

+1

period

substage 1 (reflexive schemes): neonate mostly uses reflexes (will begin to modify reflexes); baby totally egocentric; will suck anything

+1

behavior

Rachelís behavior would be to suck and grasp on the rattle, turn her head to the rattle when it is shaken by someone else (very simple reflexes)

 

3 Months:

+1

period

substage 2 (primary circular reactions): infants gain control over actions, chance behaviors repeated, integration the reflexes used in substage 1

+1

behavior

Rachelís behavior would be to grasp the rattle with her hands and then bring the rattle to her mouth and suck on it

 

6 Months:

+1

period

substage 3 (secondary circular reactions): attention turned outward (sits up, reach, grasp, and manipulate objects), try to repeat interesting sights/sounds caused by actions; lack of object permanence

+1

behavior

Rachelís behavior would be to grasp the rattle and bang the rattle; however if the rattle is covered or hidden, interest in the rattle is gone

 

10 Months:

+1

period

substage 4 (coordination of secondary circular reactions): schemes become organized (intentional and goal-directed), schemes used voluntarily; beginning of object permanence, but make A-not-B error; fragile mental representation

+1

behavior

Rachelís behavior would be to search for the rattle if it was hidden by combining pushing and grasping, however she will most likely make the A-not-B error

 

 

15 Months:

+1

period

substage 5 (tertiary circular reactions): circular reactions are experimental and creative, donít make A-not-B error

+1

behavior

Rachelís behavior would be to actively and avidly explore the potential uses of the rattle

 

21 Months:

+1

period

substage 6 (mental representations): enduring mental representations, use representations to solve problems, use deferred imitation, also make-believe play

+1

behavior

Rachelís behavior would be to imitate the actions of her parents and how they use the rattle

 

13. Identify the location of each of the brain lobes using the letters below.(1 pt. each)

 


__Y___Location of Parietal Lobe

 

__W___Location of Frontal Lobe

 

__Z___Location of Occipital Lobe

 

__X___Location of Temporal Lobe

 
 


Match the following functions with the appropriate lobe (1 pt. each).

 

a.Processes visual information.

b.Organizes behavior and allows for

†††† planning.

c.Processes auditory information,

†††† important for emotion and the

†††† encoding of memories.

d.Spatial processing and integration of

††† sensory input.

 
 


__D___†† Function of Parietal Lobe

 

__B___†† Function of Frontal Lobe

 

__A__†††† Function of Occipital Lobe

 

__C___†† Function of Temporal Lobe

 

 

15.

Imagine you are trying to teach a young child how to ride a bicycle. Describe how you might best scaffold the task so that the child can learn optimally. Describe what you know about the zone of proximal development, and explain how you would use your knowledge of this construct to direct your instructional efforts to the appropriate level for the child.(4 pts.)

 

+1

zone of proximal development

range of performance between what a child can do unassisted and what the child can do with assistance

+1

scaffolding

more-experienced individual provides framework to help less-experienced child to structure the activity or set subgoals

+2

teach child to ride bicycle

one possibility:

1.                   ride bicycle with child in safety seat to get accustomed to feel of bike-riding

2.                   have child become practice motions on a stationary bicycle

3.                   put child on tricycle, or bicycle with training wheels, and ride around while you help steer

4.                   let child ride and steer

5.                   have child practice short distances on level surfaces w/o turns

6.                   have child practice on more realistic terrain

actual instruction depends on childís balance, comfort with moving fast, ability to judge terrain and navigate in environment; help child to go just beyond what s/he can normally do

 

 

15.

Define assimilation and accommodation as used by Piaget. Give an example of each.(4 pts)

 

Assimilation

+1

definition

integrating external world in current schema

+1

example

the one given in class: child encounters a new rattle and attempts to use existing grasping schema. (they should not use the word assimilate; any example is ok as long as it is right.)

 

Accomodation

+1

definition

adjusting old schemas, creating new ones

+1

example

the one given in class: childís attempt at grasping new rattle using existing schema fails, so child modifies grasp. (they should not use the word accommodate; any example is ok as long as it is right.)

 

16.

Choose one teratogen and answer the following questions about the impact of each on the fetus: (1) What are the effects of exposure to the teratogen? (2) How does the amount and length of exposure impact the teratogenic effect? (3) How does the timing of exposure impact the teratogenic effect? (4 pts.)

 

+1

teratogen

+1

effect of exposure

+1

impact of amount and length of exposure

+1

impact of timing on exposure

 

Need only one of the possible teratogens below (and others are possible)

cigarettes

low birth weight, premature, miscarriage, increased risk of SIDS, lower IQ, hearing deficits, risk of cancer

dose-response relation: greater exposure means greater risk of greater defects

hurts fetus at all points of development; stopping smoking at any time helps

alcohol

fetal alcohol syndrome: facial deformities, mental retardation, attention problems, hyperactivity

even 2oz / day is harmful; drinking quickly is more harmful than drinking same amount slowly

especially risky during last trimester

thalidomide

major limb deformities

dose-response relation: greater exposure means greater risk of greater defects

only if drug was taken between 4th and 6th week after conception

aspirin

low birth weight, infant death, poor motor development, cognitive delay, emotional problems

dose-response relation: greater exposure means greater risk of greater defects

probably more problematic later in pregnancy

caffeine

low birth weight, miscarriage, irritable and vomiting newborns

mostly problematic for heavy use only

(not known)

heroin, methadone

low birth weight, physical defects, breathing problems, drug-addicted, less attentive, slowed motor development

dose-response relation: greater exposure means greater risk of greater defects

problematic at any time?

cocaine

eye, bone, genital, kidney, heart deformities

dose-response relation: greater exposure means greater risk of greater defects

problematic at any time?

 

17.

The fetus is believed to be an active contributor to its own development. For instance, many fetal behaviors are thought to be necessary for the normal formation of muscles and organs. Describe three ways in which the fetus is an active participant in its own physical and behavioral development. (6 pts.)

 

+2

Swallowing: the fetus drinks amniotic fluid, which passes through its gastrointestinal system and then is excreted back out into the amniotic sac. One benefits of this is that the tongue movements associated with drinking and swallowing promote the normal development of the palate.

+2

Fetal Breathing: as early as 10 weeks, the fetus begins moving its chest wall in and out in order to prepare its muscles and diaphragm to start breathing immediately after the fetus is born.

+2

Moving: fetal movements include moving arms and legs, wiggling fingers, grasping the umbilical cord, moving head and eyes, yawing, sucking, and others. By 12 weeks fetuses have begun practicing most of the movements that will be present at birth

 

18.

Your friend reads an article about a twin study conducted to examine the heritability of creativity. The article reports a heritability estimate of 60%. Your friend says, see, this is why I am not creative. My parents aren't creative, so there isn't anything I can do about it. Is your friend's conclusion correct? Discuss why or why not. (5 pts.)

 

+1

answer: no

+4

response: because oneís parents arenít creative does not mean that a child of theirs will not be creative. certain aspects of creativity are inherited but creativity is also formed by the type of environment the individual is brought up in. psychologists don't know if creativity runs in families because it's genetically determined or because it's simply inspired by the home environment. even though the heritability estimate is 60%, this does not mean the children will be creative. environment plays a significant role in whether and how the trait is expressed. in addition, even if an individual did not inherit the creativity trait, they can become a creative individual due to environmental factors in the home and school. (this is more of an open-ended response, as long as they explain that creativity is not completely inherited or completely learned and that it is an interaction, they should receive credit).

 

19.

What are the effects of poverty on prenatal development, birth outcomes, and long-term developmental outcomes? If you could give four suggestions to a pregnant woman living in poverty about what she can do to help ensure a healthy pregnancy and a healthy delivery, what would you tell her? (4 pts.)

 

+4

Factors known to be dangerous to fetal development: inadequate prenatal care, poor nutrition, illness, emotional stress, cigarette smoking, drug abuse, and exposure to environmental and occupational hazards. All these factors are more likely to be experienced by a woman living below the poverty line than by a middle-class woman. (students need to give four suggestions to help a women in poverty not expose the fetus to several of the factors listed above. make sure the responses seem plausible.)

20.

Imagine you are a researcher interested in differences between boys' and girls' television viewing habits. State the hypothesis that you would like to test and describe the methodology you would use. Then, answer the following two questions: (1) Why do you think your methodology is suited to your hypothesis? (2) What issues will you need to consider in terms of reliability and validity? (8 pts.)

 

Below is an example of an answer.

+2

hypothesis: test whether boys and girls differ in the amount of cartoon watching. specifically, boys will watch more fight-oriented cartoons than girls.

+2

method: ďshortĒ longitudinal design Ė assess boys and girls on how much and type of cartoons they watch over a week period.

+2

question 1: longitudinal design is best because we can get a stable measure of individual differences over time. this way we can get a big sample of viewing time for boys and girls and see how much and what type of cartoons they watch.

+2

question 2: one issue is the time at which the study is conducted. it could be that there is overall watching (as well as variability) during the summer versus school time. another issue is the age of the child and that it may affect the types of cartoons that are interesting to them.

 

21.

Each of the four theories discussed in chapter four (Piagetian, information-processing, core-knowledge, and sociocultural) has implications for teaching methods. Describe how a teacher might approach the task of teaching a child the concept of conservation from each of the four perspectives. (8 pts.)

 

Piagetian:

+2

Under Piagetian theory, a child needs to be at a certain stage of cognitive development in order to understand the conservation task. Piaget believed that the conservation task could not be understood by children until they reach the concrete operations stage (ages 7 to 12). Prior to that time, a teacher would have a difficult time teaching the child the conservation task. Once the child reaches the concrete operations stage can they begin to understand the task and the teacher can help them.

 

Information-Processing:

+2

Under information-processing theory, there are three sources of development of memory and learning: basic processes, acquisition and growth of strategies, and improved knowledge. It is through the interaction of these cognitive processes that produce cognitive growth. Thus, one tool that is used is task analysis Ė seeing how the child is understanding/approaching/solving the conservation problem. Thus teachers can use this analyses to assess the source of the childís learning problem and target their instruction to the childís specific difficulty on the conservation task.

 

Core-Knowledge:

+2

Under Core-Knowledge theory, using childrenís informal theories will help them on this task. Children have naÔve theories about physics, psychology, biology, and language. Using these naÔve theories such as physics will help children understand the concept of conservation. For example, it has been found that infants begin life with primitive theory of physics. Thus a teacher can explain the conservation task in terms of the basic physic principles that the child has developed at that time.

 

Sociocultural:

+2

Under sociocultural theory, the teacher would use social scaffolding where more competent people provide a temporary framework that supports the childís thinking at a higher level than the child can manage on their own. This can be down by explaining the goal of the task, demonstrating how the task should be done, and helping the child execute the most difficult parts. (Other ways are through guided participation Ė process in which more knowledgeable individuals organize situations in ways that allow less knowledgeable people to learn.)

 

Extra credit:(+2 pts.)

 

What is Roxieís favorite color? (circle one): B

 

a)      Blue

b)      Red

c)      Purple

d)     Green